Reference: Fukumoto Y, et al. (2023) The C-terminal tail of Rad17, iVERGE, binds the 9‒1‒1 complex independently of AAA+ ATPase domains to provide another clamp-loader interface. DNA Repair (Amst) 130:103567

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Abstract


The ATR pathway plays a crucial role in maintaining genome integrity as the major DNA damage checkpoint. It also attracts attention as a therapeutic target in cancer treatment. The Rad17-RFC2-5 complex loads the Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 (9-1-1) DNA clamp complex onto damaged chromatin to activate the ATR pathway. We previously reported that phosphorylation of a polyanionic C-terminal tail of human Rad17, iVERGE, is essential for the interaction between Rad17 and the 9-1-1 complex. However, the molecular mechanism has remained unclear. Here, we show that iVERGE directly interacts with the Hus1 subunit of the 9-1-1 complex through Rad17-S667 phosphorylation independently of the AAA+ ATPase domains. An exogenous iVERGE peptide interacted with the 9-1-1 complex in vivo. The binding conformation of the iVERGE peptide was analyzed by de novo modeling with docking simulation, simulated annealing-molecular dynamics simulation, and the fragment molecular orbital method. The in silico analyses predicted the association of the iVERGE peptide with the hydrophobic and basic patches on the Hus1 protein, and the corresponding Hus1 mutants were deficient in the interaction with the iVERGE peptide in vivo. The iVERGE peptide occupied the same position as the C-terminus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD24 on MEC3. The interaction energy calculation suggested that the Rad17 KYxxL motif and the iVERGE peptide are the primary and secondary interaction surfaces between the Rad17-RFC2-5 and 9-1-1 complexes. Our data reveal a novel molecular interface, iVERGE, between the Rad17-RFC2-5 and 9-1-1 complexes in vertebrates and implicate that Rad17 utilizes two distinct molecular interfaces to regulate the 9-1-1 complex.

Reference Type
Journal Article | Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Authors
Fukumoto Y, Hoshino T, Nakayama Y, Ogra Y
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