New & Noteworthy

Protein Complex Page Updates

December 01, 2021

SGD has updated our protein complex pages to have the same format as gene pages, with tabs across the top for each category of information, including a Summary page, a new Gene Ontology page, and a new Literature page for each complex. Just as we do for all of your favorite genes, Gene Ontology and Literature curation for complexes will be ongoing.

Summary page and new Literature page

If you have any questions or feedback about the updates to our complex pages, please do not hesitate to contact us at any time.

Categories: Website changes, Announcements, Data updates

Tags: protein complex, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

New links to AlphaFold 3D Predicted Protein Structure Database

November 09, 2021

  • The links through SGD give quick access to EMBLEuropean Bioinformatics Institute‘s new, highly accurate tool for predicting protein structure.
  • Given a peptide sequence for an uncharacterized protein, AlphaFold will model predicted domains and provide relative confidence levels for each portion of the prediction.
  • The predicted domains can then be compared to known protein structures (using a tool such as PDBeFold to seek matches to characterized protein families).
  • Whether or not a family is identified, the comparison will yield clues to protein function to help design the next experiments.
Structure of Hog1p

Categories: Data updates

Tags: AlphaFold, new tools

Updates to legacy gene names

November 05, 2021

SGD has long been the keeper of the official Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene nomenclature. Robert Mortimer handed over this responsibility to SGD in 1993 after maintaining the yeast genetic map and gene nomenclature for 30 years. 

The accepted format for gene names in S. cerevisiae comprises three uppercase letters followed by a number. The letters typically signify a phrase (referred to as the “Name Description” in SGD) that provides information about a function, mutant phenotype, or process related to that gene, for example “ADE” for “ADEnine biosynthesis” or “CDC” for “Cell Division Cycle”. Gene names for many types of chromosomal features follow this basic format regardless of the type of feature named, whether an ORF, a tRNA, another type of non-coding RNA, an ARS, or a genetic locus. Some S. cerevisiae gene names that pre-date the current nomenclature standards do not conform to this format, such as MRLP38RPL1A, and OM45

A few historical gene names predate both the nomenclature standards and the database, and were less computer-friendly than more recent gene names, due to the presence of punctuation. SGD recently updated these gene names to be consistent with current standards and to be more software-friendly by removing punctuation. The old names for these four genes have been retained as aliases.

ORFOld gene nameNew gene name
YGL234WADE5,7ADE57
YER069WARG5,6ARG56
YBR208CDUR1,2DUR12
YIL154CIMP2′IMP21

Categories: Announcements, Data updates

Tags: gene nomenclature

Reference Genome Annotation Update R64.3

August 03, 2021

The S. cerevisiae strain S288C reference genome annotation was updated in its first major update since 2014. The new genome annotation is release R64.3, which released on April 21, 2021. Note that the underlying sequence of 16 assembled nuclear chromosomes, plus the mitochondrial genome, remained unchanged in annotation release R64.3.1 (relative to genome sequence release R64.2.1).

This annotation update included:

Various sequence and annotation files are available on SGD’s Downloads site. You can find more update details and read about the new systematic nomenclature system for noncoding RNA genes on the Details of 2021 Reference Genome Annotation Update R64.3 SGD Wiki page. 

Categories: Data updates

SGD Homology Data Now Available On New Homology Pages

March 25, 2021

SGD is excited to introduce our new Homology Pages! These pages can be accessed by clicking on the Homology tab in the header of SGD gene pages, as seen below.

The information displayed on the Homology Pages is divided into several sections:

  • Homologs: Information about known homologs for the gene of interest, such as the species of the homolog, the corresponding Gene ID from the Alliance of Genome Resources, and the name of the homolog.
  • Functional Complementation: Data about cross-species functional complementation between yeast and other species, curated by SGD and the Princeton Protein Orthology Database (P-POD).
  • Fungal Homologs: Curated homolog information for 24 additional species of fungi. View the species of the fungal homolog, the database source of the entry, and the Gene ID of the homolog from that database.
  • External Identifiers: A list of external identifiers for the protein from various database sources.

If you have any questions or feedback regarding our new Homology Pages, please do not hesitate to contact us at any time.

Categories: Yeast and Human Disease, New Data, Data updates, Homologs

Interactions Page Updates

November 06, 2020

SGD has made recent updates to our Gene Interactions Page for improved clarity. Previously, genetic and physical interaction annotations were combined in one table, but now these annotations are recorded in separate annotation tables. The menu in the top left corner can be used to view and navigate to each section of the Interactions page.

Additionally, alleles, SGA Scores, and P-values are now included for annotations from the global interactions paper by Costanzo M, et al. (2016).

Please be sure to watch our Interactions Page Updates tutorial video for a quick walk-through of the changes:

If you have any questions or feedback about the updates to our Interactions Pages, please do not hesitate to contact us at any time.

Categories: Announcements, Data updates

Browse Metabolic Pathways at SGD

August 02, 2019

Did you know that SGD has over 200 curated biochemical pathways for you to explore? SGD’s YeastPathways is a database of metabolic pathways and enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. YeastPathways enables you to visualize yeast metabolism from large metabolic networks to individual pathways, and from biochemical reactions down to individual metabolites. Search tools and click-to-browse features in YeastPathways enable quick navigation and intuitive exploration of yeast metabolism.

As the first major content update to YeastPathways since 2012, we have recently updated 62 pathways with expertly-curated summaries on pathway biochemistry, genetics, regulation, and more. Compounds that were previously missing a structure have also now been updated, along with the stoichiometry and scheme of many pathway reactions. In addition to content updates, YeastPathways has also received a major software upgrade that provides new tools, pages, and visual aids.

With new content and software, YeastPathways is better than ever. Users new to YeastPathways will find that it’s easy to get started—simply access YeastPathways through the Function menu at SGD, then run a search for a pathway, compound, enzyme, or reaction on the YeastPathways homepage. You can also access YeastPathways through gene pages at SGD. Just run a search for your favorite metabolic enzyme at SGD (example: TPI1) and find the Pathways section on the locus summary page. Any pathways in which the protein is involved will be listed and linked to YeastPathways.

Check out YeastPathways and be sure to contact us if you have any questions or feedback!

Categories: Data updates

SK1 Sequence Updated in SGD

November 20, 2018


The alternative reference strain SK1 is a rapid and synchronously sporulating diploid constructed by Kane and Roth in the early 1970’s to study carbohydrate metabolism under sporulation conditions. Whereas the reference strain S288C is notorious for being poor at sporulation, SK1 undergoes sporulation readily, and as such has been widely used to study the genetics of sporulation and meiosis.

The genome of SK1, which was temporarily removed from SGD, is now available once again with an updated sequence provided by Scott Keeney from the Sloan Kettering Institute. You can access the updated SK1 sequence for your favorite genes from the Sequence tab, in the Alternative Reference Strains section (example: ECM22 Sequence page). To access the entire SK1 genome sequence, visit the SK1 Strain page. 

In addition, we have updated following Sequence and Analysis tools to utilize the latest SK1 sequence:

Variant Viewer will be updated in a future release. Be sure to check out these updated tools and resources and let us know if you have any questions or comments.

Categories: Website changes, Data updates

Updated Genome Browser

March 27, 2016


In an effort to provide a comprehensive view of sequence-based functional elements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have upgraded our genome browser, and added new data tracks, to allow users to quickly and easily browse the information-rich yeast genome. We invite authors to work with us to integrate published data into our new JBrowse genome viewer pre- and/or post-publication. Please contact us if you are interested in participating or have questions and comments. Watch for the regular addition of new tracks to SGD’s JBrowse in the future!

Take a look at our newest video tutorial to get acquainted with JBrowse, and let us know if you have any questions or suggestions.

For more SGD Help Videos, visit our YouTube channel, and be sure to subscribe so you don’t miss anything!

Categories: Website changes, Data updates

Reference Genome Annotation Update R64.2.1

February 23, 2015

SGD curators periodically update the chromosomal annotations of the S. cerevisiae Reference Genome, which is derived from strain S288C. Last November, the genome annotation was updated for the first time since the release of the major S288C resequencing update in February 2011. Note that the underlying sequence of 16 assembled nuclear chromosomes, plus the mitochondrial genome, remained unchanged in annotation release R64.2.1 (relative to genome sequence release R64.1.1).

The R64.2.1 annotation release included various updates and additions. The annotations of 2 existing proteins changed (GRX3/YDR098C and HOP2/YGL033W), and 1 new ORF (RDT1/YCL054W-A) and 4 RNAs (RME2, RME3, IRT1, ZOD1) were added to the genome annotation. Other additions include 8 nuclear matrix attachment sites, and 8 mitochondrial origins of replication. The coordinates of many autonomously replicating sequences (ARS) were updated, and many new ARS consensus sequences were added. Complete details can be found in the Summary of Chromosome Sequence and Annotation Updates.

Categories: Sequence, Data updates, New Data

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